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Art theory from a philosophical angle

A specific form of social awareness and human activity, which reflects reality in artistic forms, and is one of the most important means of assimilation and aesthetic depiction of the world. Marxism rejects idealistic interpretations of art as a product and expression of the “absolute soul,” “universal will,” “divine inspiration,” and the artist’s subconscious depictions and emotions. Work is artistic creativity and the source of the previous process that produces the emotions of human aesthetic needs. The first traces of primitive art date back to the Late Stone Age, roughly between 40,000 and 20,000 BC. Art among primitive peoples had a direct relationship with work, but after that this relationship became more complex and mediating. Behind the subsequent developments in art lie the changes in the socio-economic structure of society. People always play a big role in the development of art. And reinforce the various ties that bind him to the people in one of its defining features, which is the national character. There are many things in common between art – as a form of reflection of social existence – and other aspects of a society’s spiritual life such as: (science, technology, political ideology, and ethics). At the same time, art has a number of specific features that distinguish it from all other forms of social consciousness. Man’s aesthetic relationship with reality is the defining subject of art, and his mission is the artistic representation of the world. For this reason, man – as the bearer of aesthetic relations – is always at the center of any artistic work. And the subject of art (life in all its many forms) that controls the artist, and presents it in a specific form of reflection, that is, in artistic images that represent the permeable unity of the sensual and logical, the tangible and the abstract, the individual and the holistic, appearance and essence, and so on. The artist creates artistic images on the basis of his knowledge of life and his skill. It defines the theme and form of the reflection of reality in art and its qualitative nature, which is the satisfaction of people’s aesthetic needs by creating beautiful works that can bring happiness and joy to man, enrich him spiritually and at the same time develop and awaken in him the artist who is able, in the perceived field of his effort, to create according to the laws of beauty And to introduce us to the beauty in life. Through this aesthetic function, art displays its cognitive importance and exercises its strong ideological and educational influence. Marxism-Leninism demonstrated the objective nature of artistic development in which the main types of art were formed: literature, painting, sculpture, music, theater and cinema. And the history of art is the history of artistic contemplation of reality, which is steadily increasing in depth, extending and enriching the aesthetic human knowledge of the world and its aesthetic transformation. The development of art is inextricably linked with the development of society, and with the changes that take place in its class construction. Although the general line of art is to improve the means for a deeper artistic contemplation of reality, this development is unbalanced. That is why even in ancient times, art reached a high level, and in a certain sense it acquired the importance of general science. At the same time, the capitalist mode of production – which is incomparably higher than the mode of production of slave society – is hostile to art and poetry, if we use Marx’s expression, because it detests high social and spiritual ideals. Progressive art – in capitalist society – is linked either to the period of the rise of capitalism, when the bourgeoisie was still a progressive class, or to the activity of artists who criticize this system. Abstract art is a feature of contemporary retro art. As for the aesthetic ideal – in its highest form – it is embodied in the working class’s worldview and practical activity, and the struggle to remake the world as a communist and it is this ideal that guides the art of socialist realism [11].

As for the philosophies that arose in Western Europe, the roots of art theory were in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, which was developed in the early twentieth century by Roger Fry and Clive Bell. Art and environmental disguise or representation have deep roots in Aristotle’s philosophy.
Currently, the word art is used to denote creative works that are subject to the general sense, such as the art of dance, music, singing, writing or composition and composition, which is an expression of creative talent. Man began to practice art 30 thousand years ago, and drawings consisted of animal shapes and symbolic abstract signs on the walls of caves, and these works are considered to be the art of the Paliothian era.
For thousands of years, people used to adorn themselves, jewelry and dyes, and in most of the great ancient societies, the identity of the individual was known through artistic expressive forms that indicate it, such as in the models of his clothes, embroideries, body decoration and decoration, and dance customs. Or from the ceremonial or collective symbolism of the sign that was represented in the matum (substance) that denotes his tribe or clan. The totem was decorated with an inscription to tell the story of its ancestors or their history. In small societies, the arts were expressing their life or culture, so the festivities and dances were the expressions of their ancestors and their myths about creation, or sermons and educational lessons. Many peoples used art as a means to obtain help from the spiritual world in their lives. In large societies, rulers used to hire artists to do work that would serve their political construction, as in the countries of the Incas. The upper class used to accept clothes, jewelry and metalwork for their adornment during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, to indicate their social status. While the lower class wear coarse and tattered clothing. Currently, we find that the arts are used in large societies for a commercial, political, Udine or commercial purpose, and are subject to intellectual protection. [12] “Well and Ariel Durant” presents to us his analysis and vision of the beginnings and origins of the arts in the first part of his book “The Story of Civilization”, through the theories of many philosophers and researchers which he collected in his own unified vision in the following form: The instruments also originated in the play, so the musical playing – apparently – arose out of the human desire to sign the dance as its signature, with breaks defined and accompanied by the sounds of strengthening, and the playing instruments were of limited range and performance, but in terms of types they are hardly under limitation, made from animal horns, skins and shells They were ivory, copper, bamboo and wood. Then man decorated these instruments with delicate colors and engravings, and professional singers grew up among the tribes, as professional dancers grew up among them. The musical scale developed in obscurity and fading until it became what it is now. From music, singing and dancing combined. The theatrical and opera barbaric. That is because the primitive dance was often concerned with simulation, as it simulated the movements of animals and humans. Or try and feel what was written for the civil revival, for we owe them almost everything. ”[13]

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